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Full text of "Indians at Work"

CHIEF YESTERDAY 



INDIANS 

AT WORK 



Comments About Indians In War And Peace 



By F. W. LaRouche 
In Charge of Information and Publications 

The Apache Indian on the cover was Chief Yesterday who lived on the 
Salt River Reservation in Arizona. He is believed to have been one of those sturdy 
and indomitable Apache warriors who fought to the very end, the advance of the white 
population. The little band to which Chief Yesterday belonged, eventually settled on 
the Salt River Reservation and worked peacefully on the irrigation project there. 
Many of the great fighting qualities of the earlier Apaches have apparently been in- 
herited by the Apaches of today, who like other modern Indians, are deeply loyal to 
their country. 

Of the Mescalero Apaches the El Paso, Texas Times says: "Among the 
first to enlist were Homer Yahnozha, chief of the tribal council, son of Edwin Yah- 
nozha, past 80, who was one of Geronimi's lieutenants and was with him in his last 
stand; Barnaba Naiche, grandson of Chief Naiche, celebrated warrior under Geron- 
imo, and great grandson of Chief Cochise, who headed the tribe just prior to Vic- 
torious reign. 

Milton Snow, Navajo photographer, contributed the frontispiece and the 
pictures on pages 16 and 20. The former shows the Navajo Tsinajini having his height 
measured by Edna Folsom, Choctaw clerk, who assisted in the registration. 

The little Indian girl on the back cover is Rosalie Quinn, aged 4. Her 
father, Rex Quinn, an employee in the Land Division in Washington, is a Sioux from 
Sisseton, South Dakota. Her mother is a Shoshone from Nevada. The picture was 
made by Hyman Greenberg, Department of the Interior photographer, and was sub- 
mitted by Mrs. L. W. White, wife of the Assistant Director of the Indian Health Serv- 
ice. 

Mabel Powers (Yehsennowehs) of Chautauqua, New York, writes: 

"The comments on 'Indians At War' in the January issue of your ex- 
cellent magazine were of special interest to me in that they called to mind a state- 
ment made in the Scientific American Magazine of January 1927. I would like to 
share this statement with the readers of 'Indians At Work' as it may be of interest 
also to them. Here it is: 'in psychiatric tests applied to thousands of soldiers in the 
last war, the red man, of all four races (White, yellow, black and red) showed great- 
er power to resist mental strain. An eminent authority insists this superiority is 
due to a spiritual poise that has come to the red man from a philosophy of life that 
makes God a universal, ominipresent, benignant force in nature giving to the Indian 
the ability to stand fast - a something which lies at the root of the race to which faith 
may be pinned, as well as his characteristic staunchness, dignity, self-respect and 
strength of mind/ 

"Is not such faith the dynamic power and driving force of all morale - 
civilian or military?" 



Note To Editors: 

Text in this magazine is available for reprinting 
as desired. Pictures will be supplied to the 

extent of their availability. 



In This Issue 



Collection of Native North American Indian Books, 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au- 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

/^^V^VV\ "y^^^ March 1942 



Earl Ford McNaughton 

Comments About Indians Inside Front Cover 

Editorial John Collier 1 

"Our Soldiers Will Be Needing Meat" Clifford Presnall 5 

Buffalo On Crow Reservation (Photo by 

J. J. Sloan) 5 



Death Ends Career Of Painstaking Service ... A. W. Empie 



Between The Two Wars Indians Have Gone 

Far Forward Oliver La Farge 11 

Canadian Indian Machine Gunner Is Citizen 14 

Defense Training At Phoenix School (Photo 

by Peter Sekaer) 15 

Navajo Indians Register To Fight For 

Their Country 17 

Choctaw Indian Fights With General 

MacArthur 17 

Death Of A Young Indian Soldier Edith V. A. Murphey 18 

Indians In The News 21 

Indian Minority Handles Much Of Its Own 

Law Enforcement 23 

From The Mail Bag 26 

Swift Bear's Winter Count Lucy Kramer Cohen 29 

Indian War History Repeats Itself 31 

Alaska Indians Buy Defense Bonds 32 

Indians Conserving And Rebuilding Their 

Resources Through CCC-ID 33 

Secretary Ickes Appeals To All Employees Inside Back Cover 



UNITED S'ATtS DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR - OFFICE OF INOIAN AFFA.RS -WASHINGTON. C _\ 




AT WORK 

A News Sheet For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE 

VOLUME IX MARCH 1942 NUMBER 7 

Lorenzo Hubbell is deadL A telegram from Roman Hubbell brings the 

news today. 

It seems impossible. Lorenzo was still within his middle years. Yet 
when I first knew him eighteen years ago, he seemed already timeless - already an 
old, wise, subtly and richly merry spirit,, So much of America's best, of the best of 
old Spain, of the Indians' best, was gathered into, fused within, that never-resting 
creative spirit of his, that he seemed like an ancient Merlin, even eighteen years ago. 

And though he had been long and hopelessly ill, still when I saw him only 
a few months ago he seemed like a deathless Merlin. He had never except once 
cared about anything personal to himself, and he had lost that one thing of desire. 
But the genius flowed, the humor flowed, the insight was like a soft lightning as be- 
fore. The love which poured from his soul seemed warmer, more all-embracing, if 
possible more disinterested than of old. He gave me in that long discussion some 
new and very important insights into Navajo Indian problems; and surely he laid a 
deepened devotion to the Navajos' and Hopis' cause upon me. 



Lorenzo HubbeU was a great Indian trader, the son of a great Indian 
trader. He served as a member of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board from the time of 
its founding. His friends were simply beyond count.. "Lorenzo the Magnificent" he 
was, but also Lorenzo the Unselfish, the Radiant and the Good. Many times I have 
thought how Lorenzo, and Roman, his brother, and all of those native to the Ganado 
home, embodied tradition at its best - aristocracy at its best. An aristocracy so ma- 
ture and established that it had become altogether unconscious, and sought no priv- 
ilege or recognition for itself, but only imposed upon itself the ideals of disinterested- 
ness, hospitality, generosity, hardihood, loyalty, and public service. Not the best 
fitted to prevail in our passing world, that unconscious aristocracy, but oh how 



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3 



Government authority intensify, or does it substitute for, family or community or 
tribal responsibility and initiative? Is the young Indian building the two worlds - 
white and Indian - into a harmonious personality, or is he becoming a split soul? 
How can the school be so adjusted that the flow of language will not be interrupted? 
How, otherwise stated, can English and Papago facilitate one another instead of con- 
fusing and obstructing one another? Can the school truly and genuinely build its 
curriculum out of the practical needs and perplexities of the community - out of the 
subjects of bolsa farming, range practice, animal husbandry, buying, marketing, and, 
in general, practical management? The Papago child in his own home is given moral 
and intellectual responsibility, just as though he were an adult. He participates in 
making the family decisions and programs. Could it be arranged that he participate 
in that same way in the constructing of school program, curricula, discipline and ob- 
jectives? These are examples of questions which were not brought forward by my- 
self or our white workers but rather by the tribal leaders. 

I had the curious experience which has been repeated so often and is 
familiar to those who work with Indians in groups. It was the experience of an oc- 
casion which seemed to move very slowly and with no effort at compression or time- 
saving; where everybody spoke his fuU, slowly and sometimes repetitively. Yet at 
the end of this slow-moving day, there had been maturely completed the thinking and, 
in addition, the practical business which might well have required a week of consecu- 
tive meetings. At a town meeting of white people, in a grange, in an urban communi- 
ty organization of white people, or a legislative committee, this experience of grad- 
ualness and exhaustiveness, which yet brought complicated matters to their conclus- 
ion in a few hours, could hardly be repeated anywhere in the American part of the 
white world. 

One significant hope was voiced by more than one of the leaders. It can 
be thus paraphrased: "We have long been waiting to take part in a really deep, con- 
clusive study of our own problem. Many of our concerns have been handled just this 
way by our Superintendent, Mr. Head, and bis predecessor, Mr. Hall, but now you 
are offering us a study reaching down into the very making of Papago men and wom- 
en. Will you not see to it that the study is carried out with us participating at every 
point, but especiaUy will you not see to it that the study is not hurried? Will you 
take plenty of time; will you move at our pace, not yours?" We promised them that 
it would be that way. 

When our topic had been concluded, one of the leaders stated that they 
had been discussing, lately, a question which they would like to put to me. This was 
the question: They were all keeping in touch with our country's effort and with the 
world war. They were all prepared and very eager to do and to give everything, ut- 
terly without Umit. That was a matter of course. But ought they to give up their 
tranquility of spirit? (tranquility was the word he used.) Ought they to become ex- 
cited, tense, angry or frightened? This leader said that this question was deeply 
concerning the Papagos and was often discussed among them. 

I told them that I would give them an answer which the Papagos might 
live by, though I myself could not. It was, that power has its abode and origin not at 
the excited surface but at the tranquil center of the human being. Not our excited 



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)b )ou utSijo puB apoqe s)i SBq jaMod )Bq) 'sbm )i *)ou pxnoo nasAin i q3noq) 'Aq aAii 
XqSiui soSedetf oq) qopjA jamsuB ub maq) aA|S pinoM i pzq) maq) pxo) i 

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- spxjom om) aq) Suipxinq UBTpuj SunoA aq) si £aAi)Bi)XUi pue A)ixiqisuodsaJ X^QI- 1 ) 
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The per diem rate of compensation of all part time employees paid on an annual 
basis subject to the Classification Act is computed under the act of June 30, 1906, 
on the basis of 1/360 of the annual rate for each day of service, and, therefore, 
the full time service per annum equivalent of the hourly rate received by charwomen 
and charmen of the Custodial Service of the Post Office Department who work 5 hourly 
rate per day should be computed by multiplying the hourly rate by 8 hours per day 
and the resulting daily rate by 360. 

Before becoming eligible for promotion under the wi thin-grade salary-advancement 
statute of August 1, 1941, part time (part of each workday) or "when actually em- 
ployed" employees must render 18 or 30 months (as the case may be) of actual serv- 
ice computed on the basis of the time per month that full time employees of the 
same class would be required to work. 

B- 22862. (S) Classification — Jurisdiction — Departmental Positions Outside Dis- 
(Jan. 8, 1942) trict of Columbia 

The words "in the District of Columbia" appearing in the Classification Act 
of 1923, and subsequent amendments thereto, in connection with the words "depart- 
mental service" do not limit the .Jurisdiction of the Civil Service Commission 
under the classification act to departmental positions located within the geo- 
graphical limits of the District of Columbia, and, therefore, the .Jurisdiction 
and allocating authority of the Commission will be retained over positions in de- 
partmental offices transferred to locations outside of the District of Columbia. 



>',i )\i Jjs # )!:>;::;: i',: 



SU&&ESTED HEADINGS EOR PERSONNEL OFFICERS 



Cooper, Alfred M., How to Supervise People, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 
New York, 1937. 

Devine, John E., Films as an Aid in Training Public Employees, published by the 
Social Science Research Council, New York, New York, 1937. 

McCamy, James L., "A Word to Personnel Administrators," Personnel Administration, 
January 1942, Vol. 4, No. 5, page 1. 

Reitell, Charles, Training Workers and Supervisors , The Ronald Press, New York, 
1941. 

Wolff, J. L. , "Employee Morale: Warnings and Hints," Advanced Management, July- 
Sept. 1941, Vol. VI, No. 3, page 104, published by Society for the Advance- 
ment, New York, New York, 



19 



4 



surface, but the whole of us - all of our deeps - must engage itself in the world 
struggle that is upon us. If the whole of us be engaged, we will not be, or appear to 
be, too much excited. 

But more. If we lose ourselves too constantly into the excitement, fear 
and rage, and the immediate issues of the war, we shall become poorly equipped in- 
deed for the issues that lie not merely beyond the war but within the war. 

Indian tribes - the Papago Tribe - have lived, through many ages, in con- 
stant peril, often through long times of deadly war, often, again, confronting famine 
and plague which might decimate, even exterminate the tribes. Through it all, down 
the immense times, the Indians have kept the still light within their spirit burning. 
They have lived in their deeps. They have been tranquil. Hence, they have mani- 
fested their all but miraculous powers of adjustment and of regeneration. How im- 
portant may it be for the whole world, that these islands of human depth and human 
light shall continue to exist - that they shall not be effaced, sunken in the excitement 
and struggle! And our country's war work will be far better done if this deep, active, 
unfearing, unwithholding tranquility can be made our own. 

When the emperor Marcus Aurelius was leading the Roman armies in 
their war against the invading Teutons, amid the fever-filled marshes of the Danube, 
he became seized with a mortal illness and knew that he must die. On the night he 
was to die, the centurion came to ask him for the password, which the army was 
awaiting. Marcus Aurelius gave the password: Equinamitas . Tranquility of soul, 
Roman soldiers, even there in the fatal marshlands, confronting the barbarian hordes 
which did, although not for two centuries more, overwhelm the greatness of Rome. 



Commissioner of Indian Affair 



5 



THE CONSERVATION OF INDIAN GAME AND FISH 

By Clifford Presnall 
Fish and Wildlife Officer For Indian Lands 

During the past few weeks the citizens of this democracy have been work- 
ing together swiftly to mobilize all resources that might contribute to national de- 
fense. Manpower, machinery, minerals, foods - all the essentials of war are being 
made available for the one supreme purpose of victory over the aggressors. None 
has answered the President's call to war more quickly and wholeheartedly than the 
Indian. It is his tradition to do so, and in keeping with that tradition he is now con- 
tributing his most cherished resources - game, furs and fish. 

From all parts of the Indian country have come assurances of coopera- 
tion - the great buffalo herd on the Crow Reservation has been offered for such de- 
fense purposes as may be required, the Bad River Band of Chippewas are planning 
for maximum production of muskrat fur. The Quileute Tribal Council has enacted a 
salmon-fishing ordinance that will promote efficient production of this important 
food. These and' many other instances show how the traditional heritage of the In- 
dians is being freely used to aid defense. 

Avoid Waste Of Resources 

it is encouraging, also, to note how long- established customs are being 
observed. From time immemorial the older people have warned against taking too 
much game at one time, thinking always of keeping enough food and skins for the 
years ahead. Commissioner Collier has added his voice to this ancient and com- 
mendable counsel, by writing to- one of the northern tribes as follows: 

"We must avoid waste of our resources now, so as to be sure and have a 
steady supply to draw upon in case of a prolonged war. Also we must try to save all 
that we can for the use of our children after victory has been gained. It is for these 
reasons that I now urge you and the Council to take action wisely to use and conserve 
the beaver ..." 



Buffalo On The Crow Reservation, Montana. 




Indians Fishing At Celilo Falls 



7 



In seeking to save some of the game and fish to insure future supplies, 
several tribes have wondered whether their treaty rights would be affected by tribal 
codes that wisely limited the amount of game to be taken each year. Mr. Collier has 
explained this point also: 

Tribes Concerned Over Hunting Rights 

"Several tribes are concerned over the supposed encroachment upon In- 
dian hunting rights resulting from voluntary tribal restrictions upon such rights. Al- 
though tribal hunting ordinances may curtail the actions of individuals, they do not in 
any way jeopardize the treaty rights of the tribes. In fact, self -regulation tends to 
strengthen treaty rights, since it indicates an ability and desire to exercise such 
rights wisely and temperately. Temperate use of exclusive hunting and fishing 
rights is the most effective defense which the Indians have against any possible move 
to deprive them of such rights. As a general rule, non-Indians have no serious ob- 
jections to the exclusive hunting rights of Indians on reservations, but they do object, 
and justifiably so, to the unrestricted hunting that has depleted the wildlife on many 
reservations. If the Indians will set their own affairs in order by voluntarily enact- 
ing and obeying wise conservation ordinances, they will thus effectively combat all 
efforts to modify their treaty rights. 

"I am confident that all the tribes can do what a few have already done to 
protect their wildlife resources; and by so doing, they will strengthen and justify 
their treaty rights to exclusive hunting and fishing on the reservations." 

From all over the country come inquiries about how best to manage 
wildlife resources. Almost every tribal delegation that has visited Washington this 
winter has asked for information about efficient utilization of game or fish. No doubt 
about it, the Indians are meeting the challenge to use their natural resources for de- 
fense. 

Management of fur animals has been discussed by many delegations. All 
of them understand the need for ordinances that will protect breeding animals, so 
that good crops of fur will be produced in future years, but many tribes want more in- 
formation on how to avoid waste in furs each year, how to prepare these furs so they 
will be most valuable. Plans are being made to send booklets to the tribes most in- 
terested, as well as posters showing the way to prepare muskrat and beaver pelts 
for highest prices. These posters can be put up at agency or trading posts. They 
should be carefully studied by every trapper. 

Posters Supplied 

Posters are being supplied through the courtesy of the Seattle Fur Ex- 
change, which handles fur auctions for several Government agencies and for many of 
the Alaska Indians. Other tribes that want to be sure their furs are properly graded 
and sold for full value may write directly to Mr. M. Dederer, Manager of the Seattle 
Fur Exchange, at 1008 Western Avenue, Seattle, Washington. He is prepared to give 
full information to Tribal Chairmen or Superintendents about how a tribe may cooper- 
atively market all furs through a recognized fur auction, where top prices can be ob- 
tained. 



8 



The Indian custom of saving and using every part of every deer, elk, or 
buffalo, if followed, can set a conservation goal for the whole nation to aim at in 
times like these, when there must be no waste. Here, again, it is well to listen to 
the old people, who tell us not to kill the does while they are carrying or sucking 
fawns, for these fawns will be next year's meat supply. Our soldiers will be needing 
meat next year, and perhaps for several years. No one knows how long this war will 
last. Hence, it is good to let the does and fawns produce meat for next year. 

Another thing to remember is that many hawks and owls help the farmers 
by catching harmful mice and other animals. 

Indians who depend upon fish for food or income have a large share in 
aiding defense. Salmon is one of the principal foods supplied to our armed forces. 
Therefore, it is all-important that salmon fishermen avoid waste and catch all the 
fish they can during the open season. It is even more important that the nets be 
lifted to allow plenty of salmon to go upstream for spawning. By doing this, we can 
be more nearly certain of having good catches in future years when our boys at war 
may still be needing food. We can also thus make sure that our own food and income 
will continue. Many tribes have found it desirable to lift their nets at the same time re- 



Indian Students At Fort Wingate Learn The Art Of Tanning 




9 



quired by State regulations, thus making sure that the spawners which escape will 
not be caught by non-Indians above the reservations. This cooperation works both 
ways; the spawners allowed to escape during the State closed season should not be 
bothered by Indian commercial fishermen. For that, too, cuts down the chances of 
ready supplies of food vital to defense in the coming years. The catching of fish for 
home food throughout the year, in accordance with treaty rights, does not interfere 
with proper escape of spawners. Indians who can get fresh or dried salmon nearly 
every day are doing a good turn by eating that instead of canned salmon, which may 
be easily shipped to our defense forces. 

Other tribes fishing for white-fish, perch, pike, and goldeye in the lakes, 
have just as important a share in helping national defense as do the salmon fishing 
tribes. They are doing an equally good job of eliminating waste, catching all they 
can during the open season, and making sure that spawners are protected so that 
there will be ample supplies in the future. Once in a while someone may be tempted 
to spear fish over the spawning beds, but he should remember that such unwise fish- 
ing may destroy hundreds of little fish that might produce many pounds of food in a 
few years. 

Even though many of us cannot join the armed forces to fight, or go to the 
shipyards, airplane plants and other defense industries to work, we can all con- 
tribute to national defense by properly using and conserving the natural wealth of our 
great land - the game, fur animals, and fish. 



DEATH ENDS CAREER OF PAINSTAKING SERVICE 
By A. W. Empie, Senior Accountant and Auditor 

Ivan F. Albers, senior clerk in the Office of the Project Engineer, Colo- 
rado River Irrigation Project, Parker, Arizona, died on February 1, 1942. His un- 
timely passing will be regretted by all employees of the Indian Service who knew 
him. He served the Office of Indian Affairs at various points throughout the field for 
many years in a very efficient and commendable manner. 

Mr. Albers entered the Service at Leech Lake Agency, Minnesota, on 
September 25, 1918, having been appointed to the position of assistant timber clerk. 
He served progressively in the following positions: assistant clerk, Sisseton Agency, 
North Dakota; clerk and deputy disbursing officer, Round Valley School, California; 
chief clerk and deputy disbursing officer, Western Shoshone Agency, Nevada. On 
June 10, 1926, Mr. Albers became chief clerk and special disbursing officer under the 
District Engineer of Irrigation District No. 5, Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he 
was in charge of the clerical and accounting activities until 1935. 

He then became special disbursing agent for the new consolidated Navajo 
jurisdiction, and was detailed in March 1936 to the Pima Agency at Sacaton, Arizona, 
in order that he might be located at a lower altitude and in a climate more suited to 
his health. He was senior clerk for the Colorado River Irrigation Project at Parker, 
Arizona, at the time of his death. 



Rosa Coriz Of Tesuque Pueblo 
Grinds Corn In The Ancient Manner. 



11 



BETWEEN THE TWO WARS INDIANS HAVE GONE FAR FORWARD 

By Oliver La Farge 

President, American Association On Indian Affairs 

Mr. LaFarge, unable to attend the annual meeting of the American As- 
sociation on Indian Affairs in New York on February 5, wrote the following 
timely statement to be read at the gathering: 

Since it is, unfortunately, impossible for me to attend the Annual Meet- 
ing, I have been asked to send a message. My first thought, naturally, is to send 
greetings to you all and thank you for attending. I wish my hopes of being able to 
come East in time had been fulfilled. I want to add my word of appreciation of the 
goodness of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in coming at this more than busy 
time and preparing an address of prime and timely interest. 

Beyond this, things are happening so fast, our world is so changing, we 
are all of us still so groping to find the right work and the right rules of conduct for 
ourselves in the grave times before us, that I can do no more than set forth in a rath- 
er personal way what I have been thinking and some of the observations and consid- 
erations governing my line of thought. 

On Sunday, December 7th, I went to Santa Clara Pueblo, originally to let 
friends there know that we should be coming on Christmas Eve for the dances, and to 
discuss the White Rock Canyon Dam Project. The Indians were much disturbed over 
this project as one of the dams proposed would, if built, flood all their farming land 
and perhaps the Pueblo itself. 

News Of Pearl Harbor 

As it turned out, I arrived bearing the news of the attack on Pearl Har- 
bor. Of course, I spoke of this first in the houses I visited. The reaction to the 
news was immediate and interesting. There were expressions of regret for the many 
boys, not just of their own people, but American boys in general, who were going to be 
killed. There was an unexpectedly keen sense of Hawaii and the Philippines (where a 
New Mexico anti-aircraft regiment has been stationed) as part of our defenses and of 
direct concern to us. There was a general acceptance of the war as their own, de- 
riving from a definite feeling that they were sharers in America and democracy. 
Several of their boys had been drafted, one was an aviation cadet; now, they supposed, 
many more would be needed. An older woman remarked, calmly and almost musing- 
ly, that the girls had better get ready. Nowadays there were lots of things for wo- 
men to do to help in a war and they should expect to be asked to get to work. From 
the old Indian point of view this would be a strange thought, but it did not seem to 
surprise anyone. 

There was some talk about the dam, but it had become quite secondary. 
A Source Of Pride 

Since then I have had various chances to see Indians of this section in 
relation to the crisis. What I have seen has been interesting and sometimes amus- 
ing, but above all a source of pride. A striking thing is the high number of Indians 
being inducted, in part because they do not seek deferment unless they really need 
it. Little Tesuque Pueblo, next door to me, has a population of one hundred and fifty. 
Six men have already gone from there and more are getting ready. 




San Ildefonao Pueblo is congratulated for its trading plan for acquiring 
United States Defense Stamps and Bonds. Julian Martinez, Governor and fa- 
mous pottery maker is shown with Frank C. Rand of the New Mexico Savings 
Committee. Photograph by courtesy of the Treasury Department. 

A friend from Tesuque, with whom I went hunting this fall, was chosen 
Lieutenant Governor. I went over for the ceremony, an especially beautiful hunting 
dance, which follows shortly after the installation of new officers. The "Lincoln 
Cane", emblem of his office, was hanging on the wall of his house with a new ribbon 
on it. He himself was busy as leading drummer for the dance, being a talented sing- 
er and drummer, and incidentally a fine dancer. I saw him there in full costume, a 
handsome young man, devoutly intent upon his work. I knew that the following day he 
would go up for his medical examination with the certainty of being accepted. I 
thought that this man would make a fine soldier; in the mountains I had seen ample 
proof of his physical condition and his alert senses, he was intelligent, responsible, 
well educated, a skilled mechanic. It was odd, even a little uncomfortable, thinking 
like this while the dance went forward and the song unfolded. 

Most of the Pueblo Indians today are fairly well off in terms of food, 
housing, and clothing, but they handle relatively little money. Nonetheless they are 
taking regularly from that little to buy Defense Bonds. Their women come to the lo- 
cal Red Cross centers, are learning to knit by dozens, and working hard. There was 
one very old woman who could not seem to learn, yet the following week she came 
back with her assignment beautifully done except that she did not know how to cast 



13 



off the stitches. Again, she appeared incapable of learning. Finally it turned out 
that in order to enable her to keep up with the others of her tribe, her son had done 
the knitting for her. 

What is happening is more than picturesque or amusing. The soldiers 
one sees back on leave and the number of them with stripes on their arms, the men 
going into technical branches, the Indians in skilled defense production, all are signs 
of something quite new. In the last war Indians volunteered in surprisingly large num- 
bers. Most of them were from tribes which were comparatively de-Indianized, or 
were the exceptional individuals of more "primitive" tribes who had had unusual ed- 
ucation and contact with the world. Had they been drafted then, many would have 
been burdened with an ignorance, or rather a vast cultural gap, which would have 
made it almost impossible to fit them into a modern army, and many more would 
have been found physically unfit. In places where Indians voluntarily registered for 
the draft, the records show that a very large proportion were rejected, particularly 
for tuberculosis and ailments and weaknesses deriving from malnutrition. Few of 
those who did enter the Army could offer any special skills. They were simple in- 
fantry material and nothing more. 

Between Wars - A New Program 

Between the two wars we embarked upon an entirely new program for 
Indians, a program in no small degree born in this Association. It included the fun- 
damentals of adequate provision for health and subsistence, and a type of education, 
training, organization, equipment to help themselves based upon the assumption that 
Indians are just as intelligent and capable as anybody else. In peacetime the results 
more than prove that these assumptions were correct. 

We are not a people that think in terms of future wars. Perhaps we 
should have been more so. We certainly do not look upon our young men as cannon 
fodder nor undertake social reforms in order to bolster our armed might. The total 
reform and redirection of our Indian policy was carried out for reasons of common 
humanity and in pursuit of the democratic ideal. It certainly never occurred to any 
of us who worked for these changes that, when they have been only half achieved, one 
of their fruits would be that the Indians could be meshed into this war as never into 
any other. 

Indians Are Fit 

That has been one of the results of the program for which the Indian 
Service and its Commissioners have stood in recent years and which this Associa- 
tion has had a hand in bringing into being. The Indians themselves have welcomed 
this result. For the first time Indians are subject to the draft. It is right that they 
should be because for the first time they have become fellow- citizens receiving a 
reasonable share in the good things our democracy has to offer. Physically and in 
education they are fit. Out of the "primitive" non-Christian tribes, out of the 
Pueblos with their living, ancient culture, out of the Plains and the Northwest, are 
going mechanics, radio and telephone experts, diesel engine specialists, draftsmen, 
men equipped for all the various types of service this country needs, military and 
civilian. This growth has gone on by degrees, little noted outside of the Indian Serv- 
ice. War has presented it dramatically to us all. 



14 



It goes far beyond directly military activities. The Indians who will stay 
at home have more land, in better condition, are better equipped and trained to work 
it, far more productive than they were twenty-five or even ten years ago. In every 
aspect of civilian life they have a far greater contribution to make to the common ef- 
fort. Tribes which dragged out the last war and many years thereafter in dull, aim- 
less idleness, living and fading away on a thin trickle of relief, today are producing 
crops, cattle, lumber, a hundred necessary things, taking care of themselves and 
helping to supply the nation. 

Reform Half Achieved 

This is, unfortunately, not universally true. Reform is only half achiev- 
ed. We still have beggared tribes, slum communities, ignorance, despair, disease, 
and prejudice. We must also face the present fact that the whole program of Indian 
advancement must be grievously curtailed for lack of funds. For all their needs, we 
cannot and would not ask that the Indians receive a special exemption from the cir- 
cumstances under which every American must live. But curtailment is one thing, 
backsliding into the evil conditions of the past is another. It is a plain duty to pre- 
vent the blind creation of new hardships, to prevent a return of the old dominion of 
disease, or a breakdown in the basic program which would result in a revival of the 
old hopelessness and add our Indians to the list of Axis victims. This is the time of 
all times when the ground gained must be retained and new advances won. 

This Association has always held that its fight to enable Indians to stand 
on their own feet in the strange world which the white man has forced upon them was 
not a matter of a special favour to a special group, but an inescapable part of nation- 
al policy and the general welfare. Present circumstances have dramatically sup- 
ported this concept. They show, too, the importance of continuing our work, not to 
segregate Indians in any way from the common effort, but to maintain their growing 
capacity to contribute to the nation in war and in peace, that we and they may more 
and more interchange strength, knowledge, the good things of life, that we may share 
together the things that make life worth living for free men, and freedom worth of- 
fering our lives, together, to defend. 



CANADIAN INDIAN MACHINE GUNNER IS CITIZEN 

First man in San Diego to be admitted to citizenship under the new Fed- 
eral law providing that members of the military services need not pay the customary 
$5 fee during the war is Sergeant Spencer Thomas Honyust, Canadian Indian, in the 
United States Marine Corps. 

As he recited the oath of allegiance, the Marine spoke out clearly in 
pledging to "support and defend the Constitution of the United States of America." It 
was the very thing he had been doing for 18 years. He joined the Marines in 1923, 
and is regarded one of its most expert machine gunners. The Union, San Diego, 
California. 1-11-42. 



Winter Snows Did Not Prevent Record-Breaking Registration Of Navajo Indians Beginning February 13. 
At Fort Defiance, Arizona, They Patiently Waited At A Station 300 Yards From Old Headquarters Of 
Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson, U.S.A., Who Led Expeditions Against Them In The 1860s. 



17 



ALMOST IN THE SHADOW OF KIT CARSON'S OLD HEADQUARTERS 
. NAVAJO INDIANS REGISTER TO FIGHT FOR THEIR COUNTRY 

Undaunted by sharp winter snows and blizzards, Navajo Indian men found 
their way to the twenty registration units over their large reservation in numbers 
exceeding all estimates. 

At the close of February 16, 2,693 Navajos had registered for Selective 
Service in the third registration. This brought to 8,000 the number of Navajo regis- 
trants under the Act. The success of the registration was due in no small part to 
the efforts of the Tribal Council and the membership who canvassed their areas ex- 
plaining the purpose and function of the registration. The council rejected the idea 
of opening detached registration units in all of the small communities and insisted 
that registrants should find their own way into district headquarters throughout the 
nineteen land management districts. 

Questionnaires and labor inventory cards were completed simultaneous- 
ly for all registrants. Superintendent E. R. Fryer pointed out that completion of 
questionnaires at registration time would avoid the costly effort of circularizing, 
completing and securing questionnaires in an area of poor roads, geographical isola- 
tion, language complications and interrupted mail communications. 

At least 500 Navajos were in the armed forces of the country at the close 
of February and hundreds of others were filling important places as skilled and com- 
mon laborers in defense industry. 

At Flagstaff, Arizona, the Indian Service had secured the assistance of 
the local Chamber of Commerce as a clearing house for Navajo labor to be engaged 
in the construction of the huge $17,000,000 ordnance depot to be constructed there. 
The project contemplates a 50 per cent heavier investment than in the construction 
of the Fort Wingate Ordnance Depot where, at peak, 2,500 Navajos were employed. 



CHOCTAW INDIAN FIGHTS WITH GENERAL Mac ARTHUR 



Captain Ernest Edward McClish is believed to be on duty with General 
Douglas MacArthur's forces in the Philippine Islands. A reserve officer, Captain 
McClish was called to active duty in 1940. He reported to Fort Huachuca, Arizona, 
December 20, and 24 days later received his order for foreign service. He sailed on 
January 18, 1941, for Manila and was stationed at Fort McKinley to train native troops. 
August 27, 1941 he was transferred from Fort McKinley to Panay Island and at that 
time assumed the duties of a major. His mother received a telegram from him this 
week, but the point of origin was not disclosed. She does not know his whereabouts, 
nor has she been informed as to whether he has received a commission as a major. 
From the Okmulgee (Oklahoma) Times Democrat. (Note: Captain McClish is a half 
blood Choctaw and graduated from Haskell Institute, Kansas, in 1929.) 



18 



DEATH OF A YOUNG INDIAN SOLDIER 
By Edith V. A. Murphey 

Round Valley, California, is doing its full share of defense work. Many 
Indian soldier boys have slipped away to camps and airports in the past few months, 
but there is already one who came home to sleep his last long sleep in the valley 
where he was born. 

William Frederic Crabtree, whom we called Jim, was born in Round Val- 
ley during the first World War. He was the first soldier from this area to give up 
his life in our country's service in this war. 

Indian Service Training Helps 

Fred and Ella Crabtree are his parents, and he was one of a family of 
eight children who were brought up in a remote corner of Round Valley Reservation, 
near Nashmead, a tiny railroad station a few miles above Dos Rios. Because the 
station and post office are across Eel River from Indian lands, Mendocino County 
and the Indian Service united a few years ago in building a horse bridge across the 
river, near the Crabtree home. Several of the Crabtrees worked on this bridge, and 
there Jim got the training which helped him to get located in the Engineering Corps 
when he joined the Army last August. 

About two months after his arrival at Camp Leonard Wood, Missouri, 
Jim contracted pneumonia, and his folks were advised by Army officials that his re- 
covery was doubtful. Mrs. Crabtree went at once to her son's bedside, and was with 
him for a week before his death. 

It is a far cry from peaceful Round Valley to Camp Leonard Wood, which 
is about 150 miles from St. Louis, Missouri, with four changes of trains, a compli- 
cated trip for a country woman unused to train travel, but the friendly hands of the 
Red Cross helped the anxious mother along the way. When the Army camp was 
reached, the Red Cross was constant and sympathetic in helping Mrs. Crabtree see 
her son. When the last sad homeward journey was planned, it was the Red Cross 
which made the arrangements and schedules. A soldier buddy escorted Jim's body to 
the old home. 

World War Veterans Form Guard 

Round Valley can be beautiful, but it can also be stormy, and on Decem- 
ber 21, the day we laid Round Valley's first sacrifice in this war to rest, it rained 
in torrents. Yet the little reservation church was crowded with friends and rela- 
tives, even the neighbors from out on the river had come on horseback to give Jim 
greeting and goodbye. The casket was covered with our country's flag, and at the 
head and at the foot of the coffin, motionless as statues in raincoats and helmets, 
stood the guard, Indian veterans of the last war. At the grave the firing squad, also 
Indian World War veterans, gave this young soldier military honors. 



19 



Jim was a fine rider and bronco buster. His was a handsome and gallant 
figure as he rode the range or in rodeos, his big black hat blown off, his high crest 
of black hair tossing, his big dark eyes glowing with excitement. He rode and con- 
quered many bad horses. It brought a lump into our throats at the funeral, when in 
accordance with Indian custom, one of Jim s schoolmates stepped forward and into 
the half -filled grave, dropped Jim's highly polished boots, his wide studded leather 
belt and his black cowboy hat. 

Several years ago as I was returning from a wild flower show at Hoopa 
Reservation, I got off the train at Nashmead for a May Day celebration. The Crab- 
trees met me at the river and rowed me across to their home. Trees were just 
leafing out and there were many wild flowers and a young greenness over all the land 
scape. It is hiUy country. There is just one little flat big enough for riding or for a 
field day. 

The school children had been reading Ivanhoe, and their minds were full 
of tournaments and knights and tilting. The little mountain ponies figured in var- 
ious contests, but the one I remember best was a sort of potato race. The knights 
had wooden spears and lances. They galloped full speed and speared potatoes, plant- 
ing size, then galloped back to deposit the potato on a pile at the other end of the 
course. Prizes were bouquets of wild flowers. There were hurdle racing and broad 
and high jumps. In aU of these events the Hoaglins, Crabtrees and Leggetts took 
part. 

Made Pleasure For Others 



When twilight feU we followed the winding river trail to the Crabtree 
home and there we danced, all of us, young and old, to the music of the player piano. 
Jim danced very little, but he sat at the piano and made music for the rest of us, 
watching the dancers over his shoulders with a whimsical smile. So it is that we 
shall oftenest remember him, not as we saw him last in the church house - we had 
not realized that he was so tall - but as he was on that far off May Day, gallant in 
sports, and happy in making pleasure for others. 

Jim had not changed much as we saw him in his uniform, a little thinner 
perhaps, but on his calm young features and set lips there was a look of high resolve, 
perhaps such a look as the soldiers of Verdun wore when they said "They shall not 
pass." 

William Frederic Crabtree did not live to fight in this war, nor to see 
the end of it, but there will be an end some day, and it is by the lives, and alas by the 
deaths of such fine boys as this, that the future of our country will be secured. 



National Guard Cavalry Troop, Haskell Institute, Kansas. 




Indians In the News 



21 



Begun just a year ago and originally scheduled for completion in Feb- 
ruary, the new $11,000,000 Wingate Ordnance Depot was finished two months ago, due 
largely to the efforts of some 2,500 Indians of various tribes who worked on the proj- 
ect. Among other colossal jobs, construction included the building of hundreds of 
reinforced concrete * 'igloos" now providing more than 1,000,000 feet of storage 
space for Army explosives. Most of the Indians had never even seen the modern 
machinery used in building the depot, but the job nevertheless moved ahead of sched- 
ule and cost nearly $400,000 less than the estimates. There were complications at 
first. A lot of the long-haired Navajos, with a superstitious fear of cameras, had to 
be cajoled into having themselves mugged for work cards; and because it's taboo for 
an Indian to mention the name of his deceased parents, Social Security officials found 
it difficult to garner the Indian's family history. In general, the Indians got along 
fine with the superintendents and white men who worked with them; but if a foreman 
showed any incompetence or got too tough, his Indians would quietly slip away and 
ease themselves into the gang of some well-liked foreman directing similar work. 
Timekeepers often found that popular foremen had a lot of unauthorized Indians 
working like mad for them, and the unpopular bosses couldn't understand why their 
gangs kept dwindling. Incidentally, when the Selective Service Law was announced to 
the Indians they came in for registration carrying rifles and shotguns, eager to start 
shooting. Today, in addition to those inducted, they have provided a greater percen- 
tage of volunteers than any other racial group. Collier's . 2-14-42. 



The Standing Rock Indian Agency, in cooperation with the state highway 
patrols of North and South Dakota, recently sponsored driving tests and instruction 
in the Fort Yates and McLaughlin areas, 285 drivers participating. State patrolmen 
and agency employees were in charge. Among the persons taking part in the driving 
school were Federal employees, drivers in public occupations and a large group of 
high school students of driving age. Many of the youths taking the test were Indians. 
In a letter to Superintendent L. C. Lippert of the Standing Rock Agency, Mayor W. E. 
Kurle of McLaughlin said: "After reviewing the results of the driving school I can't 
help but feel obligated to express an oath of thanks to you for selecting our little city 
for the promotion of the education of safer driving. If in the future you can again ar- 
range for a program of this nature, please feel free to ask our cooperation." Aber- 
deen, South Dakota . The American News . 



The Jemez Indians have gone on the warpath against the Japanese because 
a paleface friend of the tribe was killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor. The death of 
Lieutenant William Schick, who became a friend of the northern New Mexico Pueblo 
Indians while stationed at the local base, explained one of the Indians, left the Jemez 
no alternative. New York, New York . The Herald Tribune. 2-8-42. 



A band of 17 Indian youths from the Turtle Mountain Indian Agency at 
Belcourt, North Dakota, will ask Uncle Sam's consent to take to the warpath. They 
are candidates for enlistment in the United States Naval Reserves, applying through 
the Minot Navy Recruiting Station. After final examinations in Minneapolis, they 
will return home to await assignment to training stations. Minot , North Dakota . The 
News. 2-4-42. 



22 



Sponsored by the State Department of Vocational Education, national de- 
fense classes in automobile mechanics and machine shop and general metal work are 
under way at Stewart, Nevada. The courses, which are given free by the Government, 
enable the students to pass Army and Navy tests, many of them going directly into 
defense work on the West Coast. The ten-week course is open to all persons over 
the age i 18, including women. The current course is expected to be followed by 
others. Superintendent Don C. Foster of the Carson Indian Agency has had supervi- 
sion of the general educational program. The opportunities which are being made 
available to the general public are but part of the regular class work of the students 
at the Carson Indian School. The entire education program of the school is now em- 
phasizing those courses which fit in with current defense effort. Carson City, Ne- 
vada . The Chronicle . 1-23-42. 



At a meeting of the Sioux Tribal Council of the Cheyenne Indian Reser- 
vation, a resolution was unanimously endorsed authorizing the purchase of $15,000 
in Defense Bonds. This decision was reached when it was learned that the income 
per person of the Indians would allow but little individual contribution. Agency offi- 
cials endorsed the move. Sixty Sioux youths from Cheyenne Agency are in the serv- 
ice of the United States in its various military forces. Victory organizations have 
been formed in the Agency proper, as well as its many outposts to raise funds for 
war relief. The tribal council contributed $100 for the three Red Cross Chapters on 
the. reservation. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The Argus-Leader. 1-31-42. 



The United States Budget Bureau has disclosed the intention of the Gov- 
ernment, regardless of the emergency, to keep America's treaties in good standing. 
The treaty of 1825, requiring the Government to provide $320 worth of iron and 
steel every year to the Choctaw Indians in Oklahoma, has been approved by the Bud- 
get Director. Other annual treaty payments of $1,200 to the Choctaws for other pur- 
poses, $4,500 worth of cloth to the Six Nations of New York, $6,000 to the Senecas of 
New York and $30,000 to the Pawnees of Oklahoma have also been approved for pay- 
ment. Paterson , New Tersey. The Call . 2-3-42. 

The Kiowa Indians recently staged a patriotic rally to which Indians of 
all Oklahoma tribes were invited. There were speeches, a banquet and the presenta- 
tion by the American Legion Post of flags to the parents of Indian boys in the service 
of their country. Mothers of sons in service, after receiving these tokens, which were 
given to indicate the gifts they had made to the nation of their boys, raised them high 
with the exultant cry "We'll win." The families of 23 Indian boys serving in the 
armed forces were represented. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Daily Oklahoman. 
2-8-42 . 



Within 24 hours after a radio report of the Japanese attack on the United 
States, Hosteen Bahe, Glen Hasbah Bahe and Ah Ha in Bah, all Navajos of Manuelito, 
New Mexico, arrived at the central Indian agency at Window Rock, Arizona, to ask 
the Superintendent to help them in purchasing $350 worth of Defense Bonds. They 
made their purchase at the Window Rock Post Office. Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
The Tribune. 12-12-41 . 



23 



INDIAN MINORITY IN UNITED STATES HANDLES 
MUCH OF ITS OWN LAW ENFORCEMENT 

Written From a Report by Louis C. Mueller, Chief Special Officer for the Indian Service 

Maintaining proper law and order among approximately 366,000 Indians 
on 174 reservations is one of the important responsibilities of the United States In- 
dian Service. 

The regular law enforcement organization last year consisted of 15 spe- 
cial officers and 12 deputy special officers. These men perform their duties under 
the direction of a chief special officer located at Denver, Colorado. 

Reduction in law enforcement personnel has constituted a serious handi- 
cap to the efficient enforcement of law and order among many Indian tribes. In spite 
of this fact, last year the Indian Service law enforcement organization obtained con- 
victions in an average of 94.36 per cent of the cases completed. The officers de- 



Tribal Court, Fort Ho//, Idaho. 



25 



veloped an average of 65 cases each, which does not include cases disposed of in 
Indian courts. They were particularly active in apprehending persons responsible 
for incendiarism in reservation forests, bringing eight defendants to trial charged 
with setting fires in the forests. Convictions and substantial sentences were ob- 
tained in every case. 

A phase of the work often overlooked and greatly underestimated is the 
preventive work done. By having officers patrol Indian dances, fairs, rodeos, season- 
al Indian labor camps, and other places where Indians gather in considerable num- 
bers, much debauching of Indians with liquor is prevented, and this reacts in preven- 
tion of crime commission by Indians. 

Most Indians Law- Abiding 

The great majority of Indians in the United States are law-abiding, and 
Indian offenses are usually minor ones. The liquor situation presents one of the 
most baffling problems in connection with the guardianship of Indians, and one of the 
gravest problems of Indian life. It is interesting to note that the liquor traffic among 
Indians is carried on almost entirely by whites. During the 1940 calendar year, under 
Federal law, only 36 Indians were charged with selling liquor, while 634 whites were 
arrested on that complaint. Prosecution under State laws for liquor violations were 
brought against 15 Indians and 121 whites. Thirty-four stills were seized, together 
with 6,000 gallons of mash ready for distillation, over 1,000 gallons of beer and 280 
gallons of whiskey. It is also interesting to note that arrests made by Indian Service 
law enforcement persons for intoxication included 259 Indians and 122 white people. 
In an effort to eliminate undesirable elements on reservations, 28 vagrancy com- 
plaints were filed against whites and only 2 against Indians. Crimes against persons 
and personal property, sex offenses and narcotic cases are also handled by the law 
enforcement people. 

Several factors tend to create problems of law and order among Indians. 
In the first place, especially in the allotted areas, the coming of the white man and 
his concepts have tended to destroy the native social organization. In the second 
place, many groups have suffered from a serious dislocation or complete destruction 
of their native economy. This destruction has removed the very core of social or- 
ganization with its controls and disciplines. Then, many Indian groups have been re- 
duced to economic dependency by events of the past generation and because of this 
fact have resorted to drinking and other forms of escape. Finally, the Indians are 
affected by the tendency of the general public toward lawlessness. 

Progress Encouraging 

Progress in the administration of law and order has oeen encouraging. 
Special courts of Indian offenses have been established on a large number of reserva- 
tions for the punishment of misdemeanors on these reservations. These Indian 
courts, developed by many tribal councils, act under authority of their own constitu- 
tions adopted under provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Special of- 
ficers report that they have received splendid cooperation and support from the var- 
ious superintendents and other agency officials who are in a position to be of assist- 
ance. Much help also has been given in many areas by state and county enforcement 
officers. 



26 

Jhom the Mail Bag 

Defense Club At Santa Fe 

Albuquerque Indian School, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

Gentlemen: 

The United States Indian School of Santa Fe, New Mexico, has organized 
a Defense Club whose purpose is to assist the selling of United States Savings 
Bonds and Stamps. They do mimeographing, typing, and other office work for the 
local county committee and for the Indian Service county organization through the 
United Pueblos Indian Agency. Students in the school are eligible to join the club by 
obligating themselves to one hour of work per week over and above their regular 
school routines. The first job for the county committee has just been completed. 

A similar club has been organized at the Albuquerque Indian School. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Sgd.) Wayne T. Pratt, 
Director of Boarding Schools. 



Club Members At Work 



27 



Buys Defense Bonds 

February 18, 1942. 

Sir: 

We believe it might be an item of interest generally that Judge Theo 
Bourgeau, a Colville enrolled Indian, 75 years of age, purchased during January, 
$650 worth of Defense Bonds and for February he has just sent this office a $1,000 
Bond. Judge Bourgeau draws $180 per annum as Indian Judge in the Inchelium Dis- 
trict. Obviously, his bond purchases are not coming out of his salary, but he has in 
the past been a very successful cattleman. He retired from active business some 
time ago and is now liquidating certain of his previous investments in order to put 
his money into Defense Savings Bonds. We consider this an excellent example and 
thought you might like to know about it. 

Respectfully, 

(Sgd.) F. A. Gross, Superintendent, 
Colville Indian Agency, 
Nespelem, Washington. 

A Word Of Praise 

Mr..W. B. McCown, 

Kiowa Indian Agency, Oklahoma. 

Dear Mr. McCown: 

I was out over the roads west of Temple on Sunday, and you people 
are to be congratulated on the people and the men who do the work. They are the 
best kept roads and look the best of any in our county, and I understand you are do- 
ing this in different parts of the State, and if you do, you are doing a wonderful work. 
There is nothing that we can do for the people in the rural districts better than build- 
ing good roads, for it saves their cars, gasoline and improves the looks of the coun- 
try. I just want you to know that we people in this part of the county certainly ap- 
preciate the way you keep the roads. 

Yours very truly, 

(Sgd.) Bob Mooney, Chairman of Good Roads Committee, 
Chamber of Commerce, Temple, Oklahoma. 



In Appreciation 

Dear Mr. Collier: 

This letter is written to express my appreciation for the part the Office 
of Indian Affairs played in the Program of Section K American Association for the 
Advancement of Science meeting in Dallas last week. The papers presented by the 
representatives of your office were very good and the part these representatives 



28 



took in the discussions was highly commendable. Moreover, it seemed to me that 
the Indian Service is pointing the way to the white man in respect to certain types of 
scientific planning. I only wish that more people knew what is going on under your 
stimulus and direction. 

Very truly yours, 

(Sgd.) Bruce L. Melvin, Secretary, 
Section K, Dallas Meeting. 

Word From A Former Superintendent 

My dear Mr. LaRouche: 

Recently I was asked to exhibit my Indian art objects at the Art Building 
of Berea College. While Mr. Meyer and I were at the Choctaw Agency, a set of post- 
ers showing basket and pottery designs was sent from Washington to be distributed 
among the boarding schools. I wonder if something similar might be available for 
our use here to augment my collection, or perhaps a loan exhibit of beadwork, bas- 
kets, etc., is already prepared. If so, I shall be pleased if you will let me know whom 
to address so that the art instructor may request use of what there is for the month 
of March. Any information you can let me have will be appreciated. 

Mr. Meyer and I continue to enjoy "Indians At Work", read it every is- 
sue from cover to cover, and are very grateful for the splendid articles and informa- 
tion regarding our old friends and co-workers. We live quietly here in this college 
town between the blue grass country and the hills of Kentucky. We are happy to see 
former acquaintances and trust that if any others are in our vicinity they will call 
upon us. 

Very sincerely, 

(Sgd.) Mrs. Harvey K. Meyer, 



Black feet Establishes A Record 



At the annual Red Cross roll call, 350 members were enrolled here 
this fall, whereas 163 was the highest membership previously. Almost immediately 
afterward, the Blackfeet Reservation Chapter of the American Red Cross was asked 
to raise $1,000 as its quota in the $50,000,000 campaign. At the end of December 
there was $2,275.05 in the bank, of which the Blackfeet Tribal Business Council 
voted $1,000. Mrs. Roy Nash served as chairman of both drives. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Sgd.) Roy Nash, Superintendent. 



29 



SWIFT BEAR'S WINTER COUNT 
By Lucy Kramer Cohen 

Continued below from the last two issues is Swift Bear's Winter Count. To the Sioux, a 
winter count is a means not only of counting the years, but of identifying them by name and 
symbol. The symbols are reproduced by Naomi G. Smith, of the Indian Office, from those 
found on a deer hide, once owned by Swift Bear's family. J. H. Bratley, retired Indian Service 
employee, furnished the Winter Count along with his interpretations of each event or symbol, 
based on personal knowledge and experiences among the Sioux on the Rosebud Indian Reserva- 
tion in South Dakota (1895-1899). 




1842-43. "Dezehdeska-died Winter." 



1843-44. "Brought - home - the - Cheyenne - Medicine - Arrow Winter?* The arrow 
seemed to have some magic power. It had been stolen from the Cheyennes by the 
Pawnees and the Dakotas in turn captured it from them. It was used to make medi- 
cine for the three Dakota bands that were together at this time. Mr. Fowke says that 
the Cheyennes had a bundle of arrows which they regarded as the Jews did the Ark of 
the Covenant. (Eth. Ann. 13)* In 1899 the writer found this arrow in charge of Chief 
Little Man of the Cheyenne at Cantonment, Oklahoma. The Cheyenne gave 100 ponies 
to the Sioux to redeem the arrow. 



1844-45. "Mules- Father-died Winter." 




1845-46. "Smallpox-again Winter." 




1846-47. "Dakota-woman-killed Winter." This was a married woman who had 
slept with a man other than her husband. The Dakota punishment for such a deed is 
— death to the woman. She was stripped of all clothing, her hands were tied and then she 
was shot with a gun as the drawing indicates - Long Pine. 



1847-48. "Paints-himself-yellow-died Winter." "This was a good Dakota man," 
so Single Wood says. 




1848-49. "Killed-half-man-and-half-woman Winter." This person was a Crow, 
drawing indicates in woman's dress, who was captured by the Dakotas but as the per- 
son proved to be a hermaphrodite, was killed. 



1849-50. "Shoshone- man-killed Winter." The red on his head indicates that his 
scalp was taken. 



♦Mr. Bratley here refers to Gerard Fowke: "Stone Art" in Annual Report, Bureau of 
American Ethnology, vol. 13, 1891-1892, p. 116. 



30 



1850-51. "Big-smallpox-used-them-up Winter." The large-sized figures of a 
person and large red spots show that the epidemic was severe and that it killed a great 
many persons. 



1851-52. "First-goods-issued Winter." This is a gray blanket which is the sym- 
bol for many kinds of goods that were issued at this time, such as blankets, calico, 
guns, powder,, flour, sugar, tobacco and everything as Single Wood says. These issues 
were to continue annually for fifty-five years during which time the Dakota understood 
that he would not have to work. The number of issues were possibly changed in the 
Treaty of 1868 or the one of 1877. 



r r c 

<~ Q 1852-53. Crows-stole-many-Dakota-horses Winter. 



cVc 



m 



fr 



1853-54. Brave-Bear-killed Winter. This Indian was killed by the Blackfeet 
Indians. 



1854-55. "Red- Leaf- went- to- Washington Winter." The red-tipped leaves of the 
pine tree indicate his name. The nine yellow circles represent the money. 



1855-56. Swift-Bear s-Father-made-medicine-again Winter. The buffalo head 
shows that it was buffalo medicine that was made, probably on account of the scarcity 
of that animal. 



1856-57. "Camp-under-White-bluff-hunting-buffalo Winter." This was at or near 
the head of Little White River. 



1857-58. "Buffalo-bull- meat Winter." This shows that the Indians were hard 
pushed for food, as they never ate buffalo bull meat if other could be had. 



1858-59. "Many- ceremonial-flags Winter." This appears to be a form of wor- 
ship in which all this people took part. Many flags were put on the hills around the 
Indian villages. 



1859-60. "Big-Crow-killed Winter." A Dakota chief was killed by the Crow In- 
dians. He had received his name from killing a Crow Indian of unusually large size. 



1860-61. "Cooking-Utensils-died Winter." This man was a Dakota brave. He was 
a very large man, especially large around the body, as the drawing indicates. The 
circle indicates cooking utensils. 



C C fi 1861-62. "Killed-Spotted-Horse Winter. ' Spotted Horse and three other Crows 
C c fl \ came and stole many horses from the Dakotas, who followed them, killed them, and 
C c I I recovered their horses. The red on his head shows that they were scalped. 



32 



The Indians have subscribed more than $13,000,000 in three Liberty 
Loans, a per capita subscription of between $30 and $40. A school at Phoenix, 
Arizona, sent 62 men into the Army, raised $27,000 for Liberty Bonds and $1,268.50 
for war savings stamps. The Osages, richest of the tribes, took $226,000 of the last 
loan. Otis Russell, an Indian non-commissioned officer in the 358th Infantry at Camp 
Travis, draws an income of $500 a month in interest on his oil lands and turns it all 
into Liberty Bonds. 

In every war activity the Indian is writing his name large in the affairs 
of the world. Red man and white man - allies in the common cause - are all good 
Indians together. 



ALASKA INDIANS BUY DEFENSE BONDS 




Demonstrating their loyalty to the United States, Alaska Indians in January made the 
Territory's largest single purchase of defense bonds - $110,645.72. Participants 
were 61 individuals, 31 native trading stores, 7 Indian corporations, 5 reindeer fund 
accounts, the Native Arts and Crafts and the Nome Skin Sellers' Association. The 
Office of Indian Affairs handled the transaction through Governor Ernest Gruening. 
Left to right: Fred R. Geeslin, Fred Ayres, E. L. Bartlett, Ernest Gruening, Gover- 
nor of Alaska (seated), Mildred L. Badten, Helen J. Davis, Helen E. Hughes, Forturia 
H. Odell. 



33 



INDIANS CONSERVING AND REBUILDING 
THEIR RESOURCES THROUGH CCC-ID 

J. P. Kinney Is Honored 

Jay P. Kinney, who has been employed in the Indian Service for 31 years, 
was recently elected a Fellow in the Society of American Foresters, the highest 
professional distinction accorded a technically trained forester in America. Mr. 
Kinney is general production supervisor of Indian CCC work. He was elected a Fel- 
low by letter ballot, along with nine other senior members of the Society, which has 
a membership of 4,700 technically trained foresters. There are now 38 Fellows. 

Five Tribes Boys Buy More Stamps 

In addition to regular purchases of Defense Savings Stamps made from 
their wages, the CCC-ID enrollees at the Willow Springs Camp, under the Five 
Tribes Indian Agency in Oklahoma, have added a few more feathers to their War Bon- 
nets. They have just bought an additional $295 worth of Defense Savings Stamps 
from their canteen fund and distributed them proportionately among those CCC-ID 
enrollees who had been in the camp at least three months preceding the accounting. 
A similar distribution of canteen funds was made at Christmas time at the Bull Hol- 
low CCC-ID Camp, which is also under the Five Tribes jurisdiction. 

Another Indian Wins Advancement In Radio 

Former CCC-ID enrollee Grover Stewart of the Crow Indian Agency in 
Montana, has been appointed Assistant Radio Instructor of the Radio Training Center 
at Chemawa, Oregon. The appointment was made by C. A. Guderian, Superintendent 
of National Defense Training. 

Grover impressed the Oregon State Board for Vocational Education with 
the manner in which he handled and operated the short-wave radio equipment at Crow 
Agency, and with his successful conduct of a class in Continental Code. 

Fort Peck Boy Promoted Twice In Year 

Joseph Day, former CCC-ID enrollee from the Fort Peck Indian Agency, 
Montana, received his clerical training in the Wolf Point and Poplar High Schools, 
and then entered the CCC-ID as an enrollee clerk. After a year of this further train- 
ing and experience, he passed a Civil Service examination and received an appoint- 
ment to the Washington Office of the Indian Service. He is now being transferred to 
the War Department in a clerical position directly connected with the war effort. 

The Fort Peck Agency writes "joe Day's happy disposition and ability as 
a clerk won the favor of his superiors. We are proud of Joe Day and regretted see- 
ing him leave, but we wish him the best of luck in his new position." 




Indian Girl Makes Good For CCC-ID 

During the months of June, 
July and August, 1841, we had a 
young Apache girl assigned to the 
office as part of the CCC-ID pro- 
gram. Due to her adaptability, 
interest and general character, 
we submit a detailed statement 
concerning her. 

Miss Dorothy Burdette, a 
19-year-old full-blood Apache In- 
dian from the San Carlos Reser- 
vation, made very good advance- 
ment in learning office work while 
in the agency office. Her duties 
were varied, and began with typewritten copy work. In the three months she proved 
to be of great assistance to the other clerks when she began letter writing, taking 
dictation, writing purchase orders from requisitions, and writing Government bills 
of lading. 

After becoming acquainted with the work, her progress and her assist- 
ance to the other clerks was very noticeable. The quality of her work improved 
greatly in the three months. She expressed a desire to continue her education in that 
line and attend a business school. Encouragement had been given her and at present 
she is enrolled in the North Phoenix High School where she is getting post graduate 
work. Her education has been at San Carlos and later at Phoenix Indian School, where 
she graduated in 1941. Here she took some typing and some shorthand, along with her 
other high school work. 



They Built Telephone Line Between Gallup And Wingate Ordnance Depot 

Under the guidance of CCC-ID Telephone Lineman A. M. Chisholm, a 
group of raw recruits from the Navajo Indian Reservation was transformed into a 
successful telephone construction outfit. The most recent accomplishment of this 
crew is the cutting in of a phantom circuit on the Indian Service line between Gallup, 
New Mexico and the Ordnance Depot at Fort Wingate where 800 Navajo Indians, mpst 
of them former CCC-ID enrollees, were employed on a defense construction project. 

Such words as "phantom tramp" may seem mysterious, but not to enroll- 
ees Alfred Chavez, Wilford Shivers and Junior Mescal who helped connect the new 
circuit to the main line. These men know how to use their pole hiking togs to climb 
safely to the dizzy heights and they know what to do with their pliers, grips and oth- 
er tools when they get there. More important, they also know how to get down again 
safely after the job is completed. Each member of this picked crew was selected for 
his aptitude in the work assigned and his interest in developing himself into a com- 
petent telephone lineman. 



SECRETARY ICKES APPEALS TO ALL EMPLOYEES 



January 21, 1942. 

To the Heads of Interior Bureaus and Divisions: 

Subject: Purchase of Defense Savings Bonds and Stamps 

Effective September 1, 1941, I established a plan for voluntary participa- 
tion of Interior employees in the Government's campaign for the sale of Defense 
Savings Bonds and Stamps. 

The monthly reports received indicate the hearty cooperation of Interior 
employees by the purchase of these securities, but the percentage of participation, 
reflecting systematic monthly or semi-monthly purchases, is low. I do not believe it 
is generally understood that only systematic purchase on one or both pay-days of 
each month, under pledge, is reflected in the report on percentage of participation. 
The Treasury Department prefers this type of pledged purchase as it is more de- 
pendable. It is true the purchase of bonds in large denominations from time to time 
helps equally to finance the war program, but Government expenditures for defense 
and war can be more safely handled if the Treasury has a means of estimating what 
amount can be raised regularly by Defense Savings Securities. 

The financing of the defenoe effort was serious in itself, but with the dec- 
laration of war a new and increased responsibility was placed on Defense Savings 
Committees and others engaged in promoting the sale of defense savings securities. 
You are therefore asked to redouble your efforts in the Interior Department cam- 
paign. Federal employees should be among the leaders in the vast army of wage- 
earners who pledge part of their earnings each pay-day or each month for the pur- 
chase of these securities. 

All committees in Washington and the field service of the Interior De- 
partment can render invaluable service by reminding employees of the opportunity of- 
fered whereby they may voluntarily provide a stimulating example to workers every- 
where by ear- marking as much of their income as they feel they can spare each 
month. In this way they will not only help the Government but will at the same time 
provide for their own financial security in the years that lie ahead. 

Knowing how generously Interior employees have responded on all pre- 
vious occasions when aid was needed, I feel sure that I will have your complete co- 
operation now, first in pledging as much as you can as an example to your staffs, and 
then urging participation by all the employees in your group. 



Secretary of the Interior